The Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA) was established on 26 January 1975 by the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of development activities in the Bombay metropolitan region. , Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, Former Regional and Professional Sports Teams from Mumbai, "Bombay" redirects here.  The Indian Premier League team Mumbai Indians is also based in the city.  There are five tolled entry points to the city by road. , In the Maharashtra state assembly elections held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 assembly constituencies.  BEST introduced air-conditioned buses in 1998. Mumbai has the second largest number of Art Deco buildings in the world after Miami.  Mumbai also has two lower courts, the small causes court for civil matters, and the sessions court for criminal cases. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. Bollywood, the Hindi film industry based in Mumbai, produces around 150–200 films every year. , Until the 1970s, Mumbai owed its prosperity largely to textile mills and the seaport, but the local economy has since then diversified to include finance, engineering, diamond-polishing, healthcare and information technology.  However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained under Portuguese possession.  The city houses important financial institutions and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. The Mumbai Nashik Expressway, Mumbai-Vadodara Expressway, are under construction. ", "McKelvey Engineering, IIT Bombay partner to study air pollution | The Source | Washington University in St. Louis", "GDP growth: Surat fastest, Mumbai largest", "City Development Plan (Economic Profile)", "Indian Ports Association, Operational Details", "Mumbai sixth among top 10 global cities on billionaire count", "Mumbai richest Indian city with total wealth of $820 billion, Delhi comes second: Report", "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008", "In Pictures: The Top 10 Cities For Billionaires", "Mumbai (Greater Mumbai) City Census 2011 data", "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai", "Shiv Sena's Snehal Ambekar elected new Mumbai mayor", Office of the Commissioner of Police, Mumbai, "MMRDA – Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority", 100 glorious years: Indian National Congress, 1885–1985, "Bal Thackeray turned to Hindutva in 1985 to win elections: ex-Shiv Sena MP", "Stage Set for Third Phase Polls in Maharashtra", "Maharashtra Lok Sabha Election Result 2019, Maharashtra Assembly and General Poll Result 2019 – IndiaToday | IndiaToday", "Mumbai election results Live updates: Aditya Thackeray registers landslide victory from Worli", The Mumbai Municipal Corporation Act, 1888, "BMC results: Saffron alliance wins BMC with 75 seats", "Development of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Mumbai", "What's Mumbai without the black beetles? , The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command, and also an important base for the Indian Navy. Sixteen major languages of India are spoken in Mumbai, with the most common being Marathi and its dialect East Indian; as well as Hindi, Gujarati and English. Mumbai (English: / m ʊ m ˈ b aɪ /, Marathi: ; also known as Bombay / b ɒ m ˈ b eɪ /, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in the country after Delhi and the seventh-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million. The Sultanate's patronage led to the construction of many mosques, prominent being the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. The powers of the commissioner are those provided by statute and those delegated by the corporation or the standing committee. Built in 1833, the Asiatic Society of Bombay is one of the oldest public libraries in the city.  Mumbai also has access to Commercial radio providers such as Sirius.   The Mumbai Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Police is a division of the Maharashtra Police, under the state Home Ministry. , Buses are generally favoured for commuting short to medium distances, while train fares are more economical for longer distance commutes. Most of the buildings during the British period, such as the Victoria Terminus and Bombay University, were built in Gothic Revival style.  There are also a few Indo-Saracenic styled buildings such as the Gateway of India.  Other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), Samajwadi Party (SP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and several independent candidates also contest elections in the city. , According to the commission report, the causes of these riots were listed as, Only 3 convictions happened in the 1992-93 Bombay riots cases. The Bandra-Worli Sea Link bridge, along with Mahim Causeway, links the island city to the western suburbs.  Moreover, the University of Mumbai was ranked 5th in the list of best universities in India by India Today in 2013 and ranked at 62 in the QS BRICS University rankings for 2013, a ranking of leading universities in the five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Newspapers are also printed in other Indian languages. Matches in the city are played at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.. The major beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova Beach, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach, and Manori Beach. , The 1960s saw the rise of regionalist politics in Bombay, with the formation of the Shiv Sena on 19 June 1966, out of a feeling of resentment about the relative marginalisation of the native Marathi people in Bombay. , The violence was widely reported as having been orchestrated by the Shiv Sena, a Hindu-nationalist political party in Maharashtra.  Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.  This came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, and mirrored similar name changes across the country and particularly in Maharashtra. Mumbai's culture is a blend of traditional festivals, food, music, and theatres.  Mumbai has approximately 1,900 km (1,181 mi) of roads. the insensitive and harsh approach of the police while handling the protesting mobs which initially were not violent. , Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has evolved into a global financial hub. Due to a shortage of grounds, various modified versions (generally referred to as gully cricket) are played everywhere.  Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the first and the oldest private engineering college affiliated to the federal University of Mumbai and is also pioneered to be the first institute in the city's university to offer undergraduate level courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. Students bagged Silver medal at IIT Tech Fest, IIT Bombay for building Sumo Wrestling Robot. From 1665 to 1666, the English managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.  Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, and the highest point in the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette in the Powai–Kanheri ranges. , The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which handles 55–60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 across the creek at Nhava Sheva with a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the city. Residents of Mumbai call themselves Mumbaikar, Mumbaiite, Bombayite or Bombaiite. Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation (MSRTC, also known as ST) buses provide intercity transport connecting Mumbai with other towns and cities of Maharashtra and nearby states.  The Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (formerly The Prince of Wales Museum) is a renowned museum in South Mumbai which houses rare ancient exhibits of Indian history.  Trains are overcrowded during peak hours, with nine-car trains of rated capacity 1,700 passengers, actually carrying around 4,500 passengers at peak hours. The commissioner is appointed for a fixed term as defined by state statute. ", "Relishing a Sunday feast, but only once in a year", The Gazetteer of Bombay City and Island 1978, "Security, the central component of an early modern institutional matrix; 17th century Bombay's Economic Growth", International Society for New Institutional Economics, "Mazgaon fort was blown to pieces – 313 years ago", "BMC will give jobs to kin of Samyukta Maharashtra martyrs", "About Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA)", "The Great Mumbai Textile Strike... 25 Years On", "From mills to malls, the sky is the limit", "Maharashtra may revisit redevelopment of textile mill land", "Profile of Jawaharlal Nehru Custom House (Nhava Sheva)", "HM announces measures to enhance security", "Mumbai blasts: Death toll rises to 26 - Hindustan Times", "Three bomb blasts in Mumbai, 18 dead, over 130 injured", "Mumbai a global financial centre? Mumbai's first professional American football franchise, the Mumbai Gladiators, played its first season, in Pune, in late 2012.  With 7 of the top ten Indian Universities being purely science and technology universities, it was India's 3rd best Multi Disciplinary University in the QS University ranking. , By 1845, the seven islands coalesced into a single landmass by the Hornby Vellard project via large scale land reclamation.  The linguistic/ethnic demographics are: Maharashtrians (42%), Gujaratis (19%), with the rest hailing from other parts of India. U Mumba is the team representing Mumbai in the country's professional Kabaddi league, Pro Kabaddi. Sir JJ School of Art,Mumbai, Maharashtra has 27 Courses with Average Fees 75,000 per year. The neutral alcohol they use is from wheat and barley. By the middle of the 17th century the growing power of the Dutch Empire forced the English to acquire a station in western India.  Their architectural features include a variety of European influences such as German gables, Dutch roofs, Swiss timbering, Romance arches, Tudor casements, and traditional Indian features.  Mumbai Metropolitan Region was home to 20,748,395 people by 2011. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession of the English Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles.  The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347–48 and controlled it until 1407. Mumbai had also played host to the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, an International Series tournament of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.  The schools are affiliated with either of the following boards: The primary education system of the MCGM is the largest urban primary education system in Asia.  Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi (1762) referred to the city as Manbai. , The number of households in Mumbai is forecast to rise from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million in 2020.  As a memorial to the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square) and a memorial was erected. Admission.  Government Law College and Sydenham College, respectively the oldest law and commerce colleges in India, are based in Mumbai.  In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 powerboat world championship, and the Force India F1 team car was unveiled in the city, in 2008. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital.. , The seven islands that constitute Mumbai were originally home to communities of Marathi language speaking Koli people.  Older terms such as Bombayite are also in use. , Under colonial rule, tanks were the only source of water in Mumbai, with many localities having been named after them. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. , Greater Mumbai, an area of 603 square kilometres (233 sq mi), consisting of the Mumbai City and Mumbai Suburban districts, extends from Colaba in the south, to Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east. , The municipal commissioner is the chief executive officer and head of the executive arm of the municipal corporation.  It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India.  Greater Mumbai, the area under the administration of the MCGM, has a literacy rate of 94.7%, higher than the national average of 86.7%. Justice Srikrishna, then a relatively junior Judge of the Bombay High Court, accepted the task of investigating the causes of the riots, something that many of his colleagues had turned down.  Mumbai is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the west. 191 rakes (train-sets) of 9 car and 12 car composition are utilised to run a total of 2,226 train services in the city.  Mumbai has the eighth-highest number of billionaires of any city in the world, and Mumbai's billionaires had the highest average wealth of any city in the world in 2008.  Mobile phone coverage is extensive, and the main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTNL, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Idea Cellular and Tata Indicom. , The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into one of the largest seaports on the Arabian Sea. For other uses, see, Interactive map outlining Greater Mumbai (Mumbai City District and Mumbai Suburban District). The riots were mainly due to escalations of hostilities after large scale protests by Muslims in reaction to the 1992 Babri Masjid Demolition by Hindu Karsevaks in Ayodhya.. By the time the right wing Hindu organization Shiv Sena realised that enough had been done by way of "retaliation", the violence and rioting was beyond the control of its leaders who had to issue an appeal to put an end to it. The sex ratio in 2011 was 838 females per 1,000 males in the island city, 857 in the suburbs, and 848 as a whole in Greater Mumbai, all numbers lower than the national average of 914 females per 1,000 males.  The name Bollywood is a blend of Bombay and Hollywood.  The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28–31 December 1885.  Post-Independence, the after-effects of the Partition of India along communal lines, the resurgence of 'Hindu Muslim Economic competition', the growth of right-wing communalist movements such as the RSS, and political strategies of 'appeasement' towards communal political influences by secular political authorities (see Shah Bano case), reinforced communalist ideologies in the country.  On 10 July 2008, a Mumbai court sentenced former Shiv Sena MP Madhukar Sarpotdar and two other party activists to a year's rigorous imprisonment in connection with the riots.  As of 2008[update], the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.  The water is filtered at Bhandup, which is Asia's largest water filtration plant.  Taxis and rickshaws in Mumbai are required by law to run on compressed natural gas (CNG), and are a convenient, economical, and easily available means of transport. Mumbai suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: widespread poverty and unemployment, poor public health and poor civic and educational standards for a large section of the population. , Water transport in Mumbai consists of ferries, hovercraft and catamarans.  Jawaharlal Nehru Port, commissioned on 26 May 1989, is the busiest and most modern major port in India.  Many of India's numerous conglomerates (including Larsen & Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance), and five of the Fortune Global 500 companies are based in Mumbai. With available land at a premium, Mumbai residents often reside in cramped, relatively expensive housing, usually far from workplaces, and therefore requiring long commutes on crowded mass transit, or clogged roadways. The area of Bombay State increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. while in the I-League (matches in the city are played at the Cooperage Ground), the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FC and Air-India.  Historian Barbara Metcalf has described the riots as an anti-Muslim pogrom.  The BEST operates a total of 4,608 buses with CCTV cameras installed, ferrying 4.5 million passengers daily over 390 routes. The black and yellow Premier Padmini Taxis are iconic of Mumbai. Bombay Sapphire, which produces 40 million bottles a year, favours a wheat-based neutral grain spirit from continental Europe. , The riots were followed by the retaliatory 12 March 1993 Bombay Bombings.. , A resident of Mumbai is called Mumbaikar in Marathi, in which the suffix kar means a resident of. The territories were later surrendered on 25 October 1535.  Many of the above service providers also provide broadband internet and wireless internet access in Mumbai. , Elections are also held every five years to elect corporators to power in the MCGM.  Along with the rest of India, Mumbai has witnessed an economic boom since the liberalisation of 1991, the finance boom in the mid-nineties and the IT, export, services and outsourcing boom in the 2000s. ", Population and Employment profile of Mumbai Metropolitan Region, "Parsis top literacy, sex-ratio charts in city", "Mumbaiites prepare for a bumpy ride this year", "District Census Handbook -MUMBAI SUBURBAN", "Highlights of Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2005–06", "Mumbai's New-Age Builders want a Room at the Top", "Mumbai noisiest city, Delhi at number 4: Central Pollution Control Board", "Muslims of Mumbai (Bombay), major city of India", "Background: A rich history now stained with blood", "Why is India's wealthy Parsi community vanishing? Services are provided by both government agencies as well as private partners.  Art Deco styled landmarks can be found along the Marine Drive and west of the Oval Maidan. , The islands were later governed by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. Although the municipal corporation is the legislative body that lays down policies for the governance of the city, it is the commissioner who is responsible for the execution of the policies. , The following decades saw massive expansion of the city and its suburbs.  About 850,000 people fled Bombay and the textile industry was adversely affected.  According to the 2016 report of the Central Pollution Control Board, Mumbai is the noisiest city in India, ahead of Lucknow, Hyderabad and Delhi.  Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat.  While the city was the capital of the Bombay Presidency, the Indian independence movement fostered the Quit India Movement in 1942 and the Royal Indian Navy mutiny in 1946. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 m, compared with 200 in Shanghai, 500 in Hong Kong and 500 in New York.. The city offers a cosmopolitan and diverse lifestyle with a variety of food, entertainment, and night life, available in a form and abundance comparable to that in other world capitals. ", "51st REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER FOR LINGUISTIC MINORITIES IN INDIA", "Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya", "Sahitya Akademi: awards and fellowships", "Bandra's spirit captured in cakes, tattoos", "MTDC will not pull out of Elephanta, Banganga fests", "The Times of India turns the Times of Colour", "IRS Q2, 2010: Negligible decline of daily readers in Greater Mumbai", "IRS Q2 2010: Publications in Maharashtra see some light", "Public life and voluntary social service organisations", "Bollywood Trawls London for Talent as Students Balk at Banking", "Bollywood filmmakers experimenting with new genre of films", "Mumbai's Film City may be home to world cinema", "Education board tells schools to get state recognition", "mumbai university: Latest News, Videos and mumbai university Photos | Times of India", "Are you cut out for Arts, Science or Commerce?  The MCGM is in charge of the civic and infrastructure needs of the metropolis.  The cooler season from December to February is followed by the hotter season from March to May. , Cricket is more popular than any other sport in the city. The Central Pollution Control Board for the Government of India and the Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai monitor and publicly share real-time air quality data. The college was earlier affiliated to the University of Mysore, but the affiliation later got changed to the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences (RGUHS), Bangalore. It was ranked 41 among the Top 50 Engineering Schools of the world by America's news broadcasting firm Business Insider in 2012 and was the only university in the list from the five emerging BRICS nations viz Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. It varies between a dry period extending from October to May and a wet period peaking in June. , About 700 million litres of water, out of a daily supply of 3500 million litres, is lost by way of water thefts, illegal connections and leakages, per day in Mumbai. The Mumbai Heritage Conservation Committee (MHCC), established in 1995, formulates special regulations and by-laws to assist in the conservation of the city's heritage structures. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the award ceremony of the Filmfare Awards, the oldest and prominent film awards given for Hindi film industry in India, are held in Mumbai.  In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of the Bahmani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands but was defeated. The population density is estimated to be about 20,482 persons per square kilometre. The Kala Ghoda Arts Festival is an exhibition of a world of arts that encapsulates works of artists in the fields of music, dance, theatre, and films. , The Mumbai Monorail and Mumbai Metro have been built and are being extended in phases to relieve overcrowding on the existing network. Mumbai is the financial, commercial, and the entertainment capital of India.  The riots were mainly due to escalations of hostilities after large scale protests by Muslims in reaction to the 1992 Babri Masjid Demolition by Hindu Karsevaks in Ayodhya. For a while, its contents were a closely guarded secret and no copies were available.  Mumbai is also well connected to most parts of India by the Indian Railways.  For several decades it has been the home of India's main financial services, and a focus for both infrastructure development and private investment. An informatory video has been released listing the guidelines which should be followed on the GATE 2021 exam days.  He died on 20 February 2010 without serving his sentence.. The low sex ratio is partly because of the large number of male migrants who come to the city to work.. Read more; January 8, 2021: GATE 2021 admit card released. , Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula on the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies between the Arabian Sea to the west, Thane Creek to the east and Vasai Creek to the north.  The Navi Mumbai Municipal Transport (NMMT) and Thane Municipal Transport (TMT) also operate their buses in Mumbai, connecting various nodes of Navi Mumbai and Thane to parts of Mumbai.  Mumbai's suburban rail systems carried a total of 6.3 million passengers every day in 2007.  Mumbai's transport system has been categorised as one of the most congested in the world.  The coastline of the city is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from the Thane creek on the This unique blend of cultures is due to the migration of people from all over India since the British period. From 8 January 1993, many riots occurred between Hindus led by the Shiv Sena and Muslims potentially funded by the Bombay underworld at that time. Diwali, Holi, Eid, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are some of the popular festivals in the city. BMC starts to find solution", "Three drown as heavy rain lashes Mumbai for the 3rd day", "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)", "Station: Mumbai (Colaba) Climatological Table 1981–2010", "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India", "Normals Data: Bombay/Colaba - India Latitude: 18.90°N Longitude: 72.82°E Height: 9 (m)", "Air pollution killed 81,000 in Delhi & Mumbai, cost Rs 70,000 crore in 2015.  A week-long annual fair known as Bandra Fair, starting on the following Sunday after 8 September, is celebrated by people of all faiths, to commemorate the Nativity of Mary, mother of Jesus, on 8 September.. The Mumbai Police is headed by a police commissioner, who is an Indian Police Service (IPS) officer.  BEST buses are red in colour, based originally on the Routemaster buses of London.  Mumbai is also home to the largest population of Parsi Zoroastrians in the world, numbering about 60,000 though with a sharply declining population. The number of households with incomes from 1–2 million rupees is also estimated to increase from 4% to 15% by 2020.  Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the company's establishments in India. Latest Updates. , In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. , The proposed Navi Mumbai International airport to be built in the Kopra-Panvel area has been sanctioned by the Indian Government and will help relieve the increasing traffic burden on the existing airport.  The Babri Mosque demolition on 6 December 1992, an act of communal violence by Hindu extremist, is considered to be the immediate cause of the riots. The Bombay riots can be considered a result of larger communal tensions throughout India. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFHansen2001 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFPhadnis (, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings, History of Bombay under Portuguese rule (1534–1661), Bombay Metropolitan Region Development Authority, City and Industrial Development Corporation, Consulate General of the United States, Mumbai, most or second-most productive metro area, Santacruz Electronic Export Processing Zone, Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority, Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport, Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj International Airport, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya, Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation, List of educational institutions in Mumbai § Schools, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, International General Certificate of Secondary Education, Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of Hospitals, National Institute of Industrial Engineering, Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management Studies, Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies, S P Jain Institute of Management and Research, List of twin towns and sister cities in India, "This weekend, go on a trail across Mumbai | Mumbai News - Times of India", "Kishori Pednekar's journey: From nursing Shiv Sena's image in BMC to mayoral office", "Mumbai Mayor: Shiv Sena's Kishori Pednekar named Mumbai mayor | Mumbai News - Times of India", "Maharashtra (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts", "INDIA STATS : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011", "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP Photos Yahoo! 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