Towards an ethical use of animals. Ethical standards for animal research in psychology: A) are identical to the standards for research using human participants. Animals used in research should be maintained in a way that provides them with as much physical and psychological wellbeing as possible. According to the In Focus box in Chapter 2, which of the following statements is TRUE? According to the Focus on Neuroscience in Chapter 2, Randy's compulsive exercising: In synaptic transmission, the action potential stimulates the release of: Paul was awakened by a thumping noise in the middle of the night. PSYC 571: Tests and Measurements (Harrisburg) Links to databases and other resources for finding psychological testing instruments. Apart of Ethics: Animal Research. 1.1 : Why Are Ethics Necessary We are concerned with normative ethics, asking questions such as: What ought morality be? Description. To promote greater tolerance and acceptance of cultural differences, ethnocentrism should be encouraged. Anesthesia, analgesia, and euthanasia. Breathing a sigh of relief, Paul let the cat out of the closet and went back to bed. Also provides explanations, search tips, and other "words to the wise" for locating and using tests. Created by. And, what character traits should researchers try to avoid? Tyler could benefit most from seeing a _____ psychologist. Researchers who use animals as experimental subjects must design their projects so that pain and distress are minimized. Learn. It also extends to the underlying motives and moral considerations of the experiment. Professor Anderson is interested in how family relationships change over time. Another group was taught using standard methods for teaching reading. Spell. Although Franz Gall and the phrenologists were wrong about the significance of bumps on the skull, they were correct about the idea that different psychological functions are localized in different brain areas. The results of experiments conducted in the laboratory may not replicate well, meaning that the results cannot be applied to real-world situations or to more general populations beyond the participants in the study. C) are set by the American Psychological Association and by state and federal laws. Psychology, Chapter 1: Animal Ethics. Although the biological perspective was important when psychology was first founded, it is of little interest in contemporary psychology. Match. Log in Sign up. The guiding principle of these committees is … READ MORE IB Psychology Exam Question Banks. An experiment, which is unethical as an idea, cannot be considered ethical simply because the research follows an ethical procedure. syphilis. A strain of primate is a chimpanzee, initial run through of the procedures to be used in an investigation, Creatures that are greatly interactive with other members of its species, Being seperated from a loved one (e.g. mother) at a young age. Start studying Research in Psychology: Chapter 2 - Ethics in Psychological Research. Only $2.99/month. APA's 2002 Ethics Code, which takes effect June 1, mandates that psychologists who use animals in research: Acquire, care for, use and dispose of animals in compliance with current federal, state and local laws and regulations, and with professional standards. Which gland produces melatonin, a hormone that helps to regulate our sleep-wake cycle? To what extent can animal models provide insight into human behaviour? Flashcards. Gravity. Key structures of the limbic system include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The test subjects are treated as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and kept in improper cages. Ending all use of animals in research has always been a goal of a number of passionate, organized, sometimes militant, and sometimes terrorist, animal rights groups. Write. Which subdivision of the nervous system helped calm down and restore Paul's body functioning back to normal? REPLACEMENT. His friends joke that Randy seems addicted to exercise. Ethics and Law for School Psychologists is the single best source of authoritative information on the ethical and legal issues school psychologists face every day. Deception in research is one area where balancing the needs for statistical accuracy and validity against ethics is always a very difficult process. Results of the study indicate that the children taught with the new program learned to read more complex material than the group who were exposed to standard teaching methods. Isabel_Kum. Ethical Standards for Research with Children Ethical Standards for Research with Children. Who was the first person to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States? Ethical research (100%) Psychology. Microglia are involved in brain development and the communication of information among neurons. For scientific research to be called truly progressive and ben… It is important to adhere to ethical principles in order to protect the dignity, rights and welfare of research participants. Stephen E. G. Lea introduces the Society’s new guidelines for psychologists working with animals. The receiving, or postsynaptic, neuron can have many differently shaped receptor sites on its dendrites, allowing it to receive more than one type of neurotransmitter. Jordan_Young06. Chimpanzee Research: The Beginning of the End? Write. 1.Replacement 2.Species and Strain 3.Number of animals 4.Procedures: Pain and distress 5.Housing 6.Reward, Deprivation and Aversive stimuli 7. Research Ethics: Animal and Clinical Research When it comes to clinical research, many people think of clinical trials, but that’s only merely a small portion of a process towards a medical development involving a process call bench to the bedside. 506. A balanced, accessible discussion of whether and on what grounds animal research can be ethically justified. An estimated 100 million nonhuman vertebrates worldwide—including primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, birds, rats, and mice—are bred, captured, or otherwise acquired every year for research purposes. How should researchers not behave? The 3Rs are: Replacement: methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in research; Reduction: use of methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals… BPS Guidelines for Psychologists Working with Animals. Terms in this set (8) 7 GUIDELINES. Recent headlines illustrate the tone: 1. Committees review proposals assess if the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of the possible risk of physical or psychological harm. publish animal research require that the authors affirm that the research was done in accordance with particular ethical standards. Animal research continues to play a vital role in psychology, enabling discoveries of basic psychological and physiological processes that are important for living healthy lives. the different types of species e.g. Test. Replacement (animal) animals should be replaced with invertebrates or less responsive alternatives whenever possible. Later, Hebb carefully records how many attempts it takes each rat to learn to run a maze with no mistakes. D) apply only to research using monkeys and chimps. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Perhaps most visible among them is the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). Which of the following would violate ethical standards for psychological research? (Huffington Post) 2. Check your understanding of characteristics of ethical research with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. Who would have been most likely to say: "You behave the way you do for unconscious reasons, not because of reasons in your consciousness"? Which early school of psychology relied on a method called introspection? Generally, before experiments on animals are conducted, the research protocol must be reviewed by animal ethics committees. Ethics are extremely important for setting boundaries in research to determine what science can and cannot do, and the difference between right and wrong. Even though the stroke disrupted some of Asha's language abilities, she was still able to appreciate music because her _____ was not damaged. Insensitivity to pain e.g. It considers the ethical issues of research involving animals in the light of these developments, the implications for regulation, and the provision of information and education. The case of Dave Duerson is discussed in the feature In Focus: Traumatic Brain Injury: From Concussion to Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. NON-HARMFUL PROCEDURES: The investigator should use no research procedure that may harm the child either physically or psychologically. Reliability, Validity, and Ethics Search this Guide Search. Randy exercises more than most people and continues to train even when he has a cold or an injury. NHS research). In a study of children's reading abilities, one group of eight-year-olds was exposed to a new program that supposedly enhances literacy. Start studying CIE AS Psychology (9990) - Ethical Guidelines for Animal Research. Generally, before experiments on animals are conducted, the research protocol must be reviewed by animal ethics committees. Gravity. Discuss the role of animal research in understanding human behaviour. It may also be helpful to consult the HCPC guidance. Animals used in research should not be subjected to unnecessary pain and distress. Smith, D. (2003, January). For most studies, the informed consent policy is used - when not used, an ethical committee must approve that the deception does not cause harm or distrust of research. These neural pathways, made up of bundles of myelinated axons, are sometimes called: The primary function of the myelin sheath is to: Gerry is a professional athlete who has suffered multiple concussions during his career. 8.02 Informed Consent to Research (a) When … The food that the animal naturally wants. Positive psychology is a field of psychological research that focuses on the study of positive psychological states, positive individual traits, and social institutions that foster these qualities in individuals and communities. Public discussion about animal research is not new. minimize harm and obtain informed consent minimize physical harm and minimize psychological harm Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Rejecting the study of conscious experience, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were behaviorists who emphasized the importance of observable behaviors. John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner were two important American psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism. Professor Anderson is most likely a _____ psychologist. Replacement Refinement Reduction (Animal) What are the three R's. If theses effects are unavoidable, efforts should be made to minimize the extent and duration … Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research was developed by the American Psychological Association Committee on Animal Research and Ethics in 2010-11. The two guiding principles for ethical standards in psychological research are _____. Random selection is a process by which participants are selected randomly from a larger group such that every group member has an equal chance of being included in the study. Chimpanzee research achieved new levels of attention within both the public and scientific sphere in the last year. Psychoactive drugs can alter brain functioning by blocking neurotransmitter receptor sites on postsynaptic neurons. Ethical standards for animal research in psychology: A. are identical to the standards for research using human participants. Dr. Jackson's approach is part of the _____ perspective. Test. (c) External Ethics Committee (EEC): for research that is externally regulated (e.g. The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla play a key role in the fight-or-flight response through the production of epinephrine and norepinephrine. As such, all research involving human beings should be reviewed by an ethics committee to ensure that the appropriate ethical standards are being upheld. An estimated 100 million nonhuman vertebrates worldwide—including primates, dogs, cats, rabbits, hamsters, birds, rats, and mice—are bred, captured, or otherwise acquired every year for research purposes. Sports psychology uses psychological theory and knowledge to enhance athletic motivation, performance, and consistency. Updated by the SRCD Governing Council in March 2007. The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) of 1966 is the only federal law in the United States regulating the treatment of animals in research; while some other laws and policies may include additional species coverage or specifications for animal care and use, all refer to the AWA as the minimally acceptable standard for animal treatment and care. In recent decades, increased interest in the _____ perspective has occurred due to the development of new drugs for psychological disorders and the development of new techniques to study the human brain. D. apply only to research using monkeys and chimps. Learn. There are various codes of conducts in psychological researches which guides the psychologists while conducting any psychological research keeping in mind that there should be no chance of violence of any type of ethical norms or principles. The British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) have both issued a code of ethics in psychology that provides guidelines for the conduct of research. are set by the American Psychological Association and by state and federal laws They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. They argue that all life is sacred and animals go through a lot of distress during experiments in which they involuntarily take part. A midbrain area called the substantia nigra contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons and is involved in motor control. Ethics in Animal Experimentation. In order to prevent undue suffering, ethical considerations in animal studies are important. Create. 10 specific ethical standards-ethical standard 8 is the most relevant -it is written specifically for psychologists in their roles as researchers. Log in Sign up. The painless killing of a patient from am incurable and painful disease. Which of the following results has NOT been reported in rats that were raised in an enriched environment as compared to rats raised in an impoverished environment? Principle 1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation. What character traits should researchers cultivate as virtues? In order to prevent undue suffering, ethical considerations in animal studies are important. C. are set by the American Psychological Association and by state and federal laws. animals are to be found in the Society’s Code of Ethics and Conduct and other advisory documents prepared by the Society (such as the Guidelines for Psychologists Working with Animals). The guiding principle of these committees is usually the 3 Rs. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The use of animals in research should evolve out of a strong sense of ethical self-examination. Monitor on Psychology, 34(1) ... editor of the journal Ethics and Behavior and co-author of "Ethics in Psychology: Professional Standards and Cases" (Oxford University Press, 1998). The chapter Prologue describes the story of a young university professor named Asha who suffered a stroke. Five principles for research ethics. Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows: The use of animals in research should be scientifically relevant and appropriate. 23 November 2016 . Limitations And Benefits Of Psychological Research On Animals: Many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice. As a result, he may now be suffering from chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). During the last two decades, he has kept track of and repeatedly surveyed the same group of 3,000 participants about changes in their relationships with their parents and siblings. _____ wrote On the Origin of Species, which was published in _____. The three R's. Ethical codes, such as those established by the American Psychological Association, are designed to protect the safety and best interests of those who participate in psychological research. Ethics is not limited to the treatment of human and animal subjects. OVER 20 years ago, the Society published its first guidance on the use of animals in psychology, in the form of a working party report. Research and Publication 8.01 Institutional Approval When institutional approval is required, psychologists provide accurate information about their research proposals and obtain approval prior to conducting the research. Spell. Research ethics govern the standards of conduct for scientific researchers. The term endorphin is actually a combination of the words _____ and _____. Components. Ethical self-examination involves a careful self-analysis of one's own personal and scientific motives. PLAY. They conduct the research in accordance with the approved research protocol. using another author's ideas in ones report without citing that author. U.S. Suspends Use of Chimps in … He raises some rats in cages with many interesting objects to play on and explore, and other rats in isolated, barren cages with none of the interesting objects. The test subjects are treated as objects rather than a living creature and are frequently abused, neglected and … In 1932, in Tuskegee, Alabama, the U.S. Public Health Service began a research study to investigate the course of _____ in the human male. Such guidelines also protect the reputations of psychologists, the field of psychology itself and the institutions that sponsor psychology research. Browse. What is the independent variable in this study? _____ are the most abundant cells in the human brain. In this study, the control group was the group that: Ethical standards for animal research in psychology: Dr. Jackson is interested in how stress affects the brain and examines PET scans of individuals before and after stressful situations. The attached document sets out the BPS guidelines for all members who are engaged in psychological activities involving living animals. The Three Rs (3Rs) in relation to science are guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing.They were first described by W. M. S. Russell and R. L. Burch in 1959. It is important to adhere to ethical principles in order to protect the dignity, rights and welfare of research participants. Attention to its current status and future are reflected in broad and sustained news coverage, intense debate, and emotional pleas delivered via mainstream and social media by scientists, scientific societies, animal protection groups, and animal rights activists. Flashcards. Text. Which of the following statements is FALSE? Limitations And Benefits Of Psychological Research On Animals: Many people see animal testing as a cruel and inhumane practice. Professor Hebb is studying whether learning is affected by different environments. Forcing participants to participate in research without their consent is called. Introspection was not a good method for psychological inquiry because it could not be used to study a variety of complex topics, such as learning, development, and personality. Hearing a muffled meow, Paul realized that his cat was shut in the closet and was pushing against the door. Discuss the ethical standards for research that guide us today. APA Ethics Code and Other Guidelines Cover Treatment of Research Animals The APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct includes principles for the humane and ethical treatment of research animals. A balanced, accessible discussion of whether and on what grounds animal research can be ethically justified. STUDY. B) are nonexistent. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Code cites that animals should be acquired, cared for, used, and disposed of in compliance with federal, state, and local laws. injection of drugs before surgical operations. Animal research is also held to a high ethical standard. As Chair of the Working Group, I would like to record my thanks to all members, who have Research ethics govern the standards of conduct for scientific researchers. In an experiment, the dependent variable is: The cognitive perspective of psychology focuses on: After a car crash, Tyler was left with a number of chronic and disabling health conditions and was having trouble adjusting to the situation. The neuron's genetic material (DNA) is found in the nucleus of the neuron's cell body. The case study method is often used to help develop a profile of a psychotherapy client. According to the In Focus box, he is likely suffering from: Claude has suffered many head injuries during his long professional ice hockey career. Paper 1: Biological approach PLAY. Match. Start studying Ethical research (100%) Psychology. A model of the cost-benefit analysis for animal research. The myelin sheath is a white, fatty covering that surrounds the axons of some neurons and increases their communication speed. B. are nonexistent. Animal research requires the approval of an IACUC, and all animal facilities are subject to regular inspections to ensure that animals are being treated humanely. Members on the committee were Gary Dunbar, PhD, Jennifer Higa, PhD, Theresa Jones, PhD, Barbara Kaminski, PhD, Scott Robinson, PhD, Rodney Swain, PhD, Pamela Scott-Johnson, PhD, Eric Wiertelak, … STUDY. APA Ethical Guidelines for Research 8. As a result of these cumulative traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), he is suffering various symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, poor judgment, lack of impulse control, and problems with memory, concentration, and attention. Discuss ethical considerations in animal research in the biological approach to understanding human behaviour. How should researchers behave? Ethical principles of Psychologydirect what should be focused in regards to ethics during a research. Frightened, he jumped out of bed to investigate. 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